回地球村時尚美語高級文章選單

A Small Look At Micronations
認識微型國家

(地球村時尚美語月刊高級文章2014年7月號)

Many people dream of becoming kings or queens and to reign supreme over great nations.  Unfortunately, opportunities to take over existing countries are few and far between1.  Some ambitious individuals, however, have sidestepped1 the problem by establishing their own.  Also known as “model countries” or “new country projects,” micronations are small entities2 with very few residents that nevertheless claim to be sovereign states.  Though small, micronations share many traits with “conventional” nations. 
許多人夢想成為國王或皇后,統治偉大的國家。可惜的是,要接管現存國家的機會微乎其微。然而一些有野心的人避開這個問題,建立自己的國家。這些微型國家也被稱為「模型國家」或是「新國家計畫」,它們是居民人數極少卻仍然宣稱是主權國家的小型實體。小歸小,但微型國家和「傳統」國家仍有許多相同的特點。

認識微型國家

Founding a micronation is simple.  Individuals simply declare independence2 from their resident countries and take on the basic functions of an independent nation.  For example, they can design flags, establish political offices, compose national anthems, or attempt to establish diplomatic relations3 with other countries.  Founders have different goals and motivations for beginning their countries.  Most micronations are started as experimental political projects, or founded by disgruntled3 citizens wishing to distance themselves from their own countries.  Others are tongue-in-cheek4 gimmicks designed to attract publicity or tourist revenue.  Some, meanwhile, are crafty schemes to exploit legal loopholes.
要建立一個微型國家很簡單。個人只需從他們居住的國家宣佈獨立,然後擔負起一個獨立國家的基本功能。舉例來說,他們可以設計國旗、設立政府機關、創作國歌,或試圖和其他國家建立邦交。創立這些國家的人,各有不同的目標和動機。大部分的微型國家最初都是實驗性質的政治計畫,或是心懷不滿、希望和原本國家撇清關係的民眾所創立的。還有一些是開玩笑的噱頭,目的是要出風頭或是吸引觀光收入。而有些則是想鑽法律漏洞的狡詐陰謀。

One of the most famous micronations is the former Republic of Rose Island.  In 1967 Italian engineer Giorgio Rosa constructed a 400-square-meter floating platform and towed5 it into the Aegean Sea.  The “island” included a restaurant, bar, night club, gift shop and even a post office, from which patrons could purchase stamps and mail off souvenir postcards. On June 24, 1968 Rosa declared independence from Italy and appointed himself president of the new “republic.”  For his new country, he developed an original currency, flag and coat of arms4.
其中一個最著名的微型國家,就是從前的玫瑰島共和國。1967年,義大利工程師喬治.羅莎建了一座400平方公尺大的漂浮平台,然後把它拖到愛琴海上。這座「島」包括一間餐廳、酒吧、紀念品店,甚至還有郵局,顧客可以從郵局購買郵票並寄出紀念明信片。1968年6月24日,羅莎宣佈從義大利獨立,任命自己是新「共和國」的總統。為了他的新國家,他還研發出獨特的貨幣、國旗和盾徽。

Tension between Rose Island and mainland Italy soon resulted in a “war” between the two nations.   The Italian government seized control of the platform, suspecting that Rosa was trying to generate tourist dollars while using the sovereignty of the island as a ruse6 to avoid paying taxes.  Rosa called the aggressive move an unlawful “military occupation.”  After evicting7 Rosa, the Italian military destroyed the island with dynamite.  Today, Rosa considers himself to be president of Rose Island’s “government in exile8.”
義大利和玫瑰島之間的緊張情勢,很快就導致兩國「開戰」。義大利政府掌控了這座平台,懷疑羅莎試圖賺取觀光收益,並利用此島嶼的主權作為避稅的伎倆。羅莎稱這個侵略性的舉動是非法的「軍事侵佔」。義大利軍隊將羅莎驅逐後,使用炸藥摧毀了島嶼。如今羅莎視自己為玫瑰島「流亡政府」的總統。

Some individuals have established micronations in international waters.  These present a valuable opportunity for criminal enterprises, such as data havens, pirate radio stations and hubs for online gambling.  In 1967, British radio pirate Paddy Roy Bates occupied HM Fort Roughs, an abandoned WWII anti-aircraft platform located six miles off the coast of mainland U.K.  Because the fort sits in international waters, Bates planned to use it as a venue9 for his pirate radio station.
有些人會在國際海域內建立微型國家。這讓犯罪集團有機可趁,像是數據隱藏點、地下電台和線上賭博的樞紐。在1967年,英國的地下電台人士派帝.羅伊.貝茲佔領了HM怒濤堡壘,這是個離英國大陸海岸6英里遠,已廢棄的二戰防空平台。由於這個堡壘位在國際海域內,貝特斯計畫將它當作地下電台的場所。

Unfortunately for Bates, however, a new British Law called the Marine Broadcasting Act of 1967 prohibited all British nationals from participating in pirate broadcasting—even when outside the country.  To circumvent10 the law, Bates simply declared independence from the U.K. and renamed the fort “The Principality of Sealand.”  However, he soon found that the resulting publicity was more profitable than his pirate radio venture, and he shifted his concentration to maintaining his new country.  To this day, the Bates family continues to sell passports and titles of nobility11 as well as a slew12 of other merchandise through the official Sealand website.  Currently, approximately 50 residents call Sealand home.
但對貝茲來說不幸的是,一條新頒布的英國法律,名為「1967年海洋廣播法」,禁止所有英國國民進行地下廣播活動,即便在英國以外的地方也一樣。為了規避法律,貝特斯乾脆宣佈從英國獨立,並且將堡壘重新命名為「西藍公國」。然而,他很快發現隨之而來的知名度,比他的地下電台更加有利可圖,因此他將注意力轉移至維護他的新國家上。至今貝茲家族仍持續經由西藍公國的官方網站,販售護照、貴族頭銜和諸多商品。目前大約有50位居民住在西藍公國。

There are countless micronations all around the world.  In micronation formation, Australia currently leads the pack5, with dozens of tiny countries scattered around the continent.  Although micronations are established for many reasons and vary in terms of their size and structure, all micronations have one thing in common:  They are invariably unrecognized by “legitimate13” countries.  Still, this doesn’t stop micronations from forming alliances14 with one another.  Some people have even branched into cybernations, or countries that lack physical borders.  In today’s modern world, the possibilities are endless.
世界各地有數不清的微型國家。在組成微型國家方面,目前是由澳洲居冠,有10幾個微型國家分佈在澳洲周圍。雖然建立微型國家的原因有很多,而且大小和結構都各不相同,所有的微型國家卻都有一個共通點:他們總是不被「合法」國家承認。但這一點仍無法阻止微型國家彼此結盟。有些人甚至跨足網際國家,也就是缺少實體國界的國家。在現代世界中,可能性是無窮無盡的。

Vocabulary
  1. sidestep (v.)  迴避問題
  2. entity (n.)實體;存在
  3. disgruntled (adj.)不滿的;不高興的
  4. tongue-in-cheek (adj.)       開玩笑的
  5. tow (v.)拖;拉
  6. ruse (n.)        詭計;花招
  7. evict (v.)        驅逐;趕走
  8. exile (n.)流亡
  9. venue (n.)地點;場所
10. circumvent (v.)      規避(法規等)
11. nobility (n.)   貴族(階層)
12. slew (n.)  (口)許多
13. legitimate (adj.)    合法的;依法的
14. alliance (n.)   結盟;同盟

Phrases, etc.
  1. few and far between (adj. phr.)稀有的;難得的
  2. declare independence (v. phr.)  宣布獨立
  3. diplomatic relation (n. phr.)外交關係
  4. coat of arms (n. phr.)(用作標誌的)紋章
  5. lead the pack (v. phr.)  居領先地位

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